The Greek Civilization
The Indo-Europeans were the progenitors of the Greeks. They belong to the Aryan group. Their original habitat is from the steppe region along the Danube to the Aegean. Between 1150 and 1000 BC, the original Greece came under the control of the Dorians. A powerful nation gradually emerged from the fusion of the Dorians. They built a civilization in that region. This civilization is the Greek civilization. The Greeks are divided into two groups. Namely : (1) Hellenic (2) Hellenistic.
The Greek peninsula was the center of the Hellenic Greek civilization. Athens was the main center of Hellenic civilization. The Hellenistic period arose when non-Greek elements were incorporated into Greek culture. The Hellenistic period began in 146 BC
The contribution of the Greeks to the discovery and development of world civilization was outstanding. Herodotus, the father of history, world-famous philosophers Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, renowned scientists Pythagoras, Archimedes, Euclid, and Hippocrates blessed Greece by being born in Greece. He discovered a new civilization by comprehensively understanding and practicing knowledge and education-culture. All branches of knowledge have been enriched by its tremendous influence worldwide. The world-renowned poet Shelley rightly said, “We are all Greeks, our laws, our literature, our art—they (all) have their roots in Greece. ”
Country and Society:- There was no single state in ancient Greece. The Greek state was a combination of small city-states protected by fortresses for defense purposes. Cities started to develop around protected areas and government systems started to develop around cities. This is how the Greek city-states began to rise and develop. Athens, Thebes, Megara on mainland Greece, Sparta and Corinth in the Gallopnesus region, Miletus on the coast of Asia Minor, etc. The city-states were different in terms of population and boundaries. Famous among the city-states were Athens and Sparta. Athens rose to the pinnacle of glory under Pericles in 460 BC. From 800 BC to the Homeric period, tribal people united and formed formal societies. They were divided into elite, middle class, and peasant, artisan, and merchant classes. Governance: The city-state system of government was modeled after the ancient Egyptian system. Two kings governed the state through a statutory council. Kings presided over military, religious, and legal affairs. He also monitored and supervised the administrative proceedings, convening meetings, and criminal court proceedings.
Economic Life: Around 594 BC, a reformer named Solon made major changes in the economic system. He contributed significantly to economic development by waiving off the loans of all farmers and reforming land revenue. The ‘helots’, the laboring class associated with the land, were the main labor force for agricultural production. Their labor force was the lifeblood of Greece’s economy. To a limited extent, the supporting forces of the financial structure were commerce and industry. Trade and industry were under the control of the Perivasi class.
Religion: The Greeks were pioneers in religion and philosophy. The worship of gods and goddesses was prevalent among the ancient Greeks. The gods were considered majestic figures, worldly, and greedy. Zeus and Athena were the main deities. Religious worship included religious processions, prayers, offerings of various goods, provision of religious feasts, etc. Thus the gods exerted considerable influence on the cultural activities of the Greeks. Olympic sports were also considered an essential part of religious activities.
Philosophy: The contribution of the Greeks to philosophy was outstanding. World-famous philosophers Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato were born in ancient Greece. They have provided very important information and theories about the world of man, the world human soul, the unity of the gods, and the past, present, and future life of man. They have contributed significantly to the advancement of science and ethics.
Architecture: City-states became beautified by supporting temples and residences. They built magnificent temples and palaces in the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles with wood and burnt bricks. Apart from temples and palaces, libraries, museums, lighthouses, and theaters were built. Sushmamandi used to make the architecture beautiful by painting mosaics on the floor and wall paintings.
Painting and Sculpture: In art, architecture, sculpture, and crafts, the Greeks left a mark of great craftsmanship and skill. Greek art adopted Archaic and Hellenic art. The ancient Greeks knew how to play the flute and various musical instruments were in vogue. Pythagoras scientifically contributed to the composition of music. Ancient Greek civilization also made invaluable contributions to the art of painting and sculpture. Artists used to paint various animals and fascinating images on the urns. During Alexander’s time, the painter Apelles founded the school of painting. Apart from painting, Greek artists also excelled in sculpture. They were adept at making precise portraits of people, horses, horses, etc. by carving stones. The contribution of the Greeks in enriching the world of history and literature is amazing. Greek writers adopted the letters of the Phoenicians by adding and subtracting some letters. The famous writer Homer became immortal by writing the epics ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ during that period. Greek writers were prolific in composing poetry and drama. The Greeks are also famous for writing history.