The Roman Civilization
Widely known as Roman civilization. And this civilization was discovered long before the glory of Greek civilization faded. It flourished on the banks of the Tiber River in Italy and radiated its influence throughout the world. They have an unforgettable contribution in the fields of knowledge science, education literature, architecture, etc.
Country and Society: 753-510 BC Monarchy was established in Rome. A republic was established in Rome after the fall of the monarchy. At one stage of various ups and downs, King Julius Caesar took power and established a dictatorship in 46 BC. He was a talented ruler. He was renowned as a politician, orator, and lawmaker. Augustus Caesar came to power after Julius Caesar was killed. He ushered in the famous Augustan era. After taking office as the first Roman emperor in 31 BC, Augustus Caesar declared himself the head of both Roman religion and the military. The social life of Rome was not good, destroyed by war and revolution. Most Romans were illiterate. Warfare and agriculture were the main livelihoods. The expansion of technical industries and trade was not so extensive. However, under the influence of historical philosophy, the free labor market was created. As a result, slavery ended. The number of free people increases. They build small businesses. Economic disparity leads to social instability and moral degradation. Homosexuality has become a common topic in society. Violence and crime increase in society
Religion: Gods and Goddesses were prevalent in Imperial Rome. Rome also worshiped the emperor as a god. The birth of Jesus Christ during the reign of Augustus ushered in a new religion in the world. Christianity spread widely through the efforts of Jesus at only 30 years of age, who carried the message of love, forgiveness, and peace. Christianity became the state religion in Rome during the reign of Emperor Constantine. As a result, radical changes were made in the administration of the Roman Empire in favor of this new religion.
Economic Life: The economic condition of Rome was prosperous. The lofty harmony and the green fields of crops stretching to the horizon are considered symbols of public comfort. Agriculture and industry were Rome’s main economic sources. A lot of food grains and vegetables were produced. The use of chemical fertilizers and poultry farms were developed. In the Roman Empire, the public operated many industries. Furniture, weapons, and bronze and iron goods were made in Roman factories. Woolen textiles and pottery were manufactured in small industries. The masses of the Roman civilization developed trade relations with distant countries such as India and China. From India, they imported spices, precious stones, sandalwood, etc. Romans imported silk from China. Guilds played a considerable role in the social and economic spheres of Rome. The organization of artisans, traders, and professionals of the Roman Empire was called a guild. The Roman government encouraged agriculture, industry, and trade. By improving roads, Emperor Augustus Caesar facilitated the expansion of trade.
Architecture and Sculpture: The grand and magnificent buildings of Rome stand as an expression of the power and opulence of the Roman Empire. The use of concrete in architecture in Rome revolutionized building construction. The stones were firmly attached to the concrete. As a result, the construction of arches and domes became possible. By using the mentioned technology they have demonstrated their mastery of the art of architecture by building beautiful churches, theatres, baths, houses, etc. The Colosseum, built by Roman Emperor Titus in 80 AD, was a theater that could seat 5,600 spectators at a time. The Romans excelled in landscape painting, church wall painting, biblical embellishment, and the decoration of biographies of holy men. Roman sculpture specialized in stone busts of gods, kings, and dignitaries.
Language, Literature, and Culture: The Romans were familiar with the Greek language, science, and education arts for their merits. Closeness increased after the occupation of Greece Perhaps that is why the influence of Hellenic culture is observed in Roman culture. The writing system was introduced in Rome at the beginning of the 6th century BC. Their writing system was used in making laws and contracts. Roman inscriptions are found on the walls of various of their tombs. Earlier, the Romans first introduced the Latin alphabet based on the Greek alphabet. As a result of the creation of the alphabet, the progress of civilization was achieved. The Latin language and literature flourished and flourished in Rome during the reign of Augustus Caesar. As a result, the entire population of Rome had to practice this language. Modern French, German Spanish, English etc. developed from the Latin language. Roman progress in literature, history, and philosophy is immeasurable. Roman literature is related to philosophy. Epicurean and Stoic philosophies are present in the writings of the Greek poets Horace and Virgil. Virgil’s epic work ‘Aeneid’ was translated into many languages. Ovid and Livy were the famous poets of Rome. Interpretation of Roman Law: The most glorious contribution of the Romans to the history of civilization was in the field of law. Roman law was created by the convention of logic and custom. That is why the objective effectiveness of this law is remarkable. In the early period, the Romans solved their problems by constitutions. 450 b